Vision recorders are easy-to-use, true RMS, micro-computer based voltage, amperage and power recording devices that produce accurate readings and professional reports. These recorders can help resolve customer voltage and power quality complaints, record flicker, conduct long-term voltage and current surveys, and detect voltage and current variations as brief as one cycle. Since the Vision operates on an internal battery or external 120V power supply, it will not disrupt or alter the normal power source to which it is connected. Each Vision gathers and stores interval graph data, recording the average, minimum, and maximum readings for a selected interval with one-cycle resolution. The Vision also calculates power measurements such as power factor, phase angle, reactive power. Installing the Vision is simple. However the same attention to safety observed when working with any other high-voltage device should always be followed. Please read the Safety Information section of this manual prior to installation. Once the unit has been installed and the recording is complete, the data can be downloaded using the USB communications cable, an Ethernet connection (VisionPro), or Bluetooth ® wireless technology (VisionPro and Vision models). Real-time data can be viewed using the user interface conveniently located on the front of the recorder, or using ProVision on a laptop or desktop computer. For more information on viewing real-time data using ProVision, please refer to the ProVision Quick Start Guide or manual. You can then view and analyze recorded data using the ProVision software. With the software, you can create an array of graphs and reports, each of which provides useful, clearly presented power quality data. Available Models There are three available models of the Vision. The label on the front of the power quality analyzer identifies the model of the unit. VisionPro - USB, Bluetooth ® Technology, Ethernet Vision - USB, Bluetooth ® Technology VisionLite – USB Figure 2 – Vision™; Models Available Inputs Direct connections are supplied for 4 voltage and 4 current inputs on the VisionPro and Vision, and 3 voltage and 3 current inputs for the VisionLite. All voltage inputs are rated for 0 to 600VAC continuous (and ±5kV transient measurement on VisionPro). The maximum current that can be measured is dependent on the CT being used. The voltage and current inputs are recorded and used to generate reports and interval graphs. Instrument Size and Construction The Vision power quality analyzer is contained in an IP51 rated enclosure, providing protection against entry of dust and foreign objects. The unit is rated for outdoor temperatures, but not protected against outdoor weather. The enclosure measures 7”L (177.8mm) x 4.5”W (114.3mm) x1.4”H (35.6mm). Servicing should only be performed by PMI. High voltages are present inside the Vision and servicing by unauthorized personnel can result in product damage or bodily injury . System Description The Vision power quality analyzer is an instrument designed to measure, record, and display AC power parameters using state of the art digital technology. The power analyzer can also be used with pmiView software running on a Palm ® PDA, with ProVision Mobile™; on a PMI Field PC, or with ProVision on a laptop computer equipped with Bluetooth ® technology for real time viewing of waveforms, harmonics, vectors, and numeric values. Applications A Vision power quality analyzer may be configured to record and monitor a variety of Wye and Delta electrical system configurations. Typical measurement applications include, but are not limited to: RMS Voltage RMS Current True and Displacement Power Factor Harmonics to the 51st Phase Rotation Flicker Power Levels Waveform Capture Frequency Memory Operating firmware, recorded data, and the real time clock settings are stored in non-volatile, battery backed memory. USB and Ethernet Communications A mini-USB connector is available on the right side of the Vision (under a protective rubber tab) for connection to your computer or the supplied AC power adapter using the included USB communications cable. Figure 3 – Vision™; USB Communications Cable A standard RJ45 Ethernet jack is available on the bottom of the Figure 4 – Vision™; Ethernet Communications Cable Bluetooth ® Wireless Communications You may communicate with the Vision power analyzers from a laptop or desktop PC, select Palm ® PDAs, or a PMI Field PC equipped with Bluetooth ® wireless technology (VisionPro and Vision only). Refer to the appropriate software manual for detailed communications information and instructions. Vision™; Accessories Additional functions and capabilities can be added to the Vision as accessories. These options are briefly described in the following paragraphs. TLARs True Low Ampere Reading (TLAR) 20/200 Amp current clamps are available in sets of 2, 3, or 4 clamps. The TLARs can record in ranges of either 20 or 200 amps. Figure 5 – TLAR Current Clamps Ultra Slim Flexible CTs PMI has a wide selection of Flexible CTs that range in circumference from 12 to 48 inches and have ranges of 100, 1000, and 5000 Amps. All PMI flexible CTs are powered from the power quality analyzer - no external batteries are needed. Figure 6 – Ultra-Slim Flexible CTs Voltage Clips PMI offers two types of voltage clips for your application. The dolphin style clips are standard with every power analyzer. Grabber style clips are optional at an additional cost. Figure 7 – Voltage Clips Vision ™; Specifications Voltage, Current Inputs AC Voltage, max 600VAC continuous, between any voltage input banana jacks Transient Voltage 5kV peak max Capture (VisionPro) AC Current, CT 0 to 5000 Amps measure Sample rate Voltage VisionPro 1MHz per channel (16,666 s/cycle) Vision 15.36kHz per channel VisionLite (256 s/cycle) 15.36kHz per channel (256 s/cycle) Current Same as voltage Measured Quantities RMS Voltage Volts RMS Current Amps Real Power Watts Apparent Power VA Reactive Power VAR Phase Angle Degrees Power Factor Watts/VA Displacement PF cos(phase angle) Power Usage kWh, kVARh, kVAh Frequency Hz Accuracy Percent of full scale Voltage 0.33 % Current 1.0 % excl probe Power 1.0 % excl probe Phase Angle 1 degree excl probe Power Factor ±0.02 excl probe Displacement PF ±0.02 excl probe Information Storage Memory Interval graph 1GB VisionPro Waveform capture 16MB Vision 1MB VisionLite Significant Change 1000 records Flicker 1000 records Harmonics Voltage Measures to the 51 st Current Measures to the 51 st Measures Magnitude, Phase, THD Record Settings Interval Graphs VisionPro, Vision 1 cycle to 4 hours VisionLite 1 second to 4 hours Significant change 1V to 8V Flicker settings user-defined or conform to IEEE 1453/IEC 61000-4-15 and IEEE 141. Waveform Capture voltage and current threshold, periodic capture. Communications VisionPro USB 2.0, Bluetooth ® , Ethernet 2.0 Vision USB 2.0, Bluetooth ® VisionLite USB 2.0 Power Supply Requirements Voltage Internal battery, USB power adapter 8 hrs Environmental Operating -20 to +135 F temperature -29C to +57C Relative Humidity ≤85% Max Altitude 2.0km (6560 ft), derate above2.0km Case Protection IP 51 Physical Dimensions Size 7”L x 4.5”W x 1.4”H Weight 1.2 lbs. Internal Battery 3.7V LiIon Not user replaceable Memory Backup 3V Lithium coin Battery Charge Time With PMI pwr adapter 5 hrs, unit OFF/ON From USB 12 hrs, unit OFF Implementation of new developments and product improvements may result in specification changes. Figure 8 – Vision™; Specifications Connecting the Vision™; This chapter provides information and procedures for connection of your Vision power quality analyzer. Included are handling procedures, installation and wiring specifications, and instructions for both standard and optional equipment. Wiring Specifications and Procedures Power Requirements and Internal Battery The Vision power quality analyzer operates on an internal rechargeable 3.7V Li Ion Polymer battery or from a 5V, 2A AC wall adapter, and does not require connection of voltage to the measurement inputs to operate. The internal battery will provide power to the unit for approximately 5 hrs with the display backlight on continuously or 8 hrs with the display backlight turned off. The battery will charge from the 5V 2A PMI power adapter from a fully discharged state in approximately 5 hrs with the unit turned on or off. The battery will charge from a standard USB port in approximately 12 hours from a fully discharged state with the Vision unit turned off. The USB cable can be used to supply the total required operating power to the Vision from the PMI AC power adapter included with the Vision power quality analyzer. The required operating power can also be supplied from a standard USB port if the Vision backlight is turned off. If the Vision backlight is turned on, a slow reduction in internal battery charge will occur while connected to a USB port. Use of a power adapter other than the one supplied with your Vision may result in unit damage, reduced battery charge, or failure to properly charge the internal battery. The internal Lithium memory backup battery allows the Vision to retain recorded data or an initialization setup for up to three years. This battery should be replaced whenever the battery voltage as reported by ProVision is 2.3V or lower. The operating and backup batteries are not user replaceable. Replacement of these batteries should only be performed by PMI. Safety Considerations This section explains the installation of the Vision power quality analyzer. The same care that is required when working with any high-voltage equipment must be taken in order to assure user safely. Please take the time to read the safety issues on pages1-2 and the next several sections, before installing the Vision. If possible, de-energize the lines you plan to monitor until the installation is complete. Warning To avoid electric shock, use only the voltage test leads and accessory current transformers (CTs) supplied with the Vision power analyzer. TLAR current clamps and Ultra Slim Flex CT accessories should only be connected to PMI products designated for use with these devices. Inspect the voltage test leads, CT signal cables, and the USB and Ethernet communications cables for damage to the insulation prior to use. Do not use if there are visible cuts or punctures to the cable jacket, or visible inner signal wires. Do not use the Flex CT assembly if the inner contrast color of the jacket insulation of the flexible CT is visible. Do not use chemicals to clean the voltage leads, Flex CT loop, CT output signal cables, or electronics enclosures. Use only a clean, damp cloth to wipe the exterior of these devices. The Flex CT electronics enclosure is sealed and potted for environmental integrity and safety. To assure safe and reliable operation do not attempt to open the enclosure. Environmental Considerations To assure optimum performance and safety, observe the following precautions when selecting an installation environment for the Vision power quality analyzer, Flex CTs, and TLAR current probes: Operating ambient temperature must be within -20°F to 135°F (-29 to 57°C). Do not use in a hazardous location, as defined by the National Electric Code. The Vision is not constructed with explosion proof fittings, and is not approved for use near flammable gases or combustible dust. The Vision has an environmental protection rating of IP51, providing protection against entry of objects and dust, but is not intended for outdoor use where the unit may be subjected to dripping, splashing, or spraying water. There are two things to connect when installing the Vision: CTs (Flex or TLARs) Voltage measurement leads Installing the Vision Before connecting the voltage leads or current measurement CTs to the Vision, the power quality analyzer should either be turned OFF or placed in the PAUSE mode to prevent false triggering and monitoring of additional voltage or current events during the connection process, which could possibly overwrite valid data. If any previously recorded data has been downloaded from the Vision prior to making the new connections, then connections can be made without regard to the operating mode of the Vision if the unit will be reinitialized (memory erased) prior to starting a new monitoring session. To place the Vision in the PAUSE mode, press one of the four real time function keys (Waveforms, Readings, Harmonics, or Vectors) to access the Perimeter Menu Screen (see Systems Settings Menus section for a description of this screen). Scroll to the menu choice PAUSE and press the OK button on the scroll pad. The message PAUSED should appear on the screen to verify that the recording has been stopped. To start the recording again without reinitializing the unit, press one of the four real time function keys (Waveforms, Readings, Harmonics, or Vectors) to access the Perimeter Menu Screen, scroll to the menu choice RECORD and press the OK button on the scroll pad. The message recording should appear on the screen to verify that the recording session has resumed. The Current Transformers (CTs) The optional Flex CTs or TLAR current clamps connect to the Vision through a 12”L current adapter cable supplied with the unit. This cable adapts the 9-pin flex CT output connector to the RJ45 current input connector on the Vision housing. The Vision power quality analyzer can be used with TLARs rated for 20A or 200A, or Ultra Slim Flexible CTs that can be set for current ranges of 100A, 1000A, or 5000A. The desired CT range must be selected using the Vision keypad to access the current RANGE selections, or during initialization setup from ProVision or ProVision mobile. It is also acceptable to operate the Vision with no CTs attached if current measurements are not required. Installation of TLAR and Flexible CTs The Vision and the Ultra Slim Flex CTs are designed and tested for measurements on 600V CAT IV installations. Installation Category IV relates to the source of the low voltage distribution- level installation. The construction of the Ultra Slim Flexible CTs comply with the following Safety Standards: UL 61010-031,1 st Edition, 3/30/07 (IEC 61010-031, 1st Edition, 2002). CAN/CSA-C22.2 No 61010-2-032:04 (IEC 61010-2032:2002),2 nd Edition, 2002-09 While the Flex CTs and TLAR probes do not make direct electrical connection to the conductors carrying the current to be measured, USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN PLACING the Flex CTs or TLAR probes around these hazardous conductors. Do not install CTs around insulated or uninsulated conductors that have voltage potentials above 600V. Do not install the CTs while in contact with standing water or wet ground. Protective gloves, glove covers, safety glasses, and any other PPE required by your organization’s applicable safety policies should be worn at all times during installation, operation, and removal of the CTs and voltage leads of the power quality analyzer. To connect the Flex CT or TLAR probes to the Vision, insert the 9pin MALE connector of the CT output cable into the 9-pin FEMALE connector on the Vision current adapter cable and rotate Figure 9 – Vision™; Adapter Cable Insert the adapter cable RJ45 plug into the RJ45 jack on the top end of the Vision housing. Loop each flexible CT element, or TLAR probe, around the corresponding conductor or bus to be monitored. The raised plastic arrow on the Flex CT connector body, or at the top of the handle of the TLAR current clamps, must point toward the load that is being measured for the correct current-to-voltage phase relationship. Insert the plastic connector plug on one end of the flex CT into the plastic connector socket on the other end, and snap firmly together. The “smart box” midway along the cable performs the necessary signal integration and scaling functions. FlexCT and TLAR current probe setup See the power quality analyzer Initialization, FlexCT and TLAR Current Probe Setup section below for a description of current CT setup prior to initialization, and CT range selection during monitoring. The Voltage Inputs The Vision power quality analyzer can monitor voltage on three or four input channels, depending on the Vision model. Voltage leads rated for 600V CAT IV (1000V CAT III) are provided for each channel. These leads are color-coded as follows: Using the dolphin clips provided with your power analyzer, attach the leads to voltage conductors in a pattern which will monitor the phases on which you wish to collect data. For different connection configurations, see the information in the following section on connecting to different types of services. Channel Lead Phase Channel 1 Black A Channel 2 Red B Channel 3 Blue C Channel 4 Yellow GND Common White Common Connecting to different types of services When connecting the Vision power quality analyzer, keep the following things in mind: The banana jacks are color-coded by channel: Black Channel 1, Red - Channel 2, Blue - Channel 3, Yellow Channel 4, and White - Common. Do not exceed the maximum input voltage listed on the power quality analyzer label. The limits are 600VRMS channel-tochannel, or channel-to-common. You can use a four-channel unit to monitor a single-phase system: either unplug the unused leads, connect them in parallel so that all channels are monitoring the same information, or clip them to the COM connection to avoid noise readings. WARNING WHEN CONNECTING THE SIGNAL MEASURING LEADS, DO NOT TOUCH ANY OF THE CONNECTION POINTS. LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY BE PRESENT WHICH CAN CAUSE SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. The following hookup diagrams illustrate several circuit configurations and their connection to the Vision power analyzers. Disconnecting Voltage Leads and CTs When disconnecting the Vision voltage leads and current CTs to move them to a new connection point at the same location or a different site, or to end the recording session, place the Vision in the PAUSE mode prior to disconnecting the leads and CTs. This will prevent triggering and monitoring false voltage and current events which could possibly overwrite valid data. To place the Vision in the PAUSE mode, press one of the four real time function keys (Waveforms, Readings, Harmonics, or Vectors) to access the Perimeter Menu Screen. Scroll to the menu choice PAUSE and press the OK button on the scroll pad. The message PAUSED should appear on the screen to verify that the recording has been stopped. To start the recording again without reinitializing the unit, press one of the four real time function keys (Waveforms, Readings, Harmonics, or Vectors) to access the Perimeter Menu Screen, scroll to the menu choice RECORD and press the OK button on the scroll pad. The message monitoring should appear on the screen to verify that the recording session has resumed. Communication Port Connections A USB and Ethernet communications port (VisionPro only) has been included on the housing of the Vision power quality analyzer. The communications cables included with the power quality analyzer are: USB – VisionLite, Vision, and VisionPro models - connection to a laptop or desktop PC; Cable type – mini USB to USB Type A. Ethernet – VisionPro only - connection to a local area network (LAN) for remote access from a PC or via the internet. Cable type -standard Ethernet RJ-45 cable. USB Communications Cable The USB communications cable is configured and wired to conform to the industry standards for USB communication. Important : To maintain operator safety while the USB cable is connected to the Vision (for communications or power), the cable should be positioned to avoid direct contact between the cable jacket or connectors and live conductors. The USB cable can be used to supply the total required operating power to the Vision from the PMI AC power adapter supplied with the Vision power analyzer. The required operating power can also be supplied from a standard USB port if the Vision backlight is turned off. If the Vision backlight is turned on, a slow reduction in internal battery charge will occur while connected to a USB port. To communicate with the Vision using the USB cable, insert the mini-USB plug into the mini-USB jack on the right side of the Vision (located under the protective rubber tab) and the USB Type A end of the cable into a computer USB port. See the “PC and Laptop Communications with Vision power quality analyzers” section for more information on how to communicate with your Vision using your computer. Once connected, ProVision can be used to download data and initialize the Vision for monitoring. Please refer to the ProVision manual for instructions. Ethernet Communications Cable The Ethernet communications cable is configured and wired to conform to the industry standards for Ethernet communication. The Ethernet communications feature is only available on the VisionPro. Insert the Ethernet cable plug into the RJ45 jack located on the bottom of the Vision (VisionPro only). Insert the RJ-45 plug on the other end of the cable into a standard network port. Once connected ProVision can be used to connect to the power quality analyzer for remotely downloading data and initializing the Vision for monitoring. Please refer to the ProVision manual for instructions. See the “Ethernet Communications with Vision power quality analyzers” section for more information on how to communicate with your Vision over a network. The Ethernet cable does not supply operating power to the Vision. Operating power during Ethernet communications will be supplied by the internal battery or the supplied AC wall adapter. Operating the Vision ™; Power Mode Control The Vision power control button is located on the right side of the enclosure. This button allows control of the three primary power operating modes, On, Off, and Suspend. When the Vision is turned OFF, press the power button to turn on the unit. Press and hold the power button for approximately two seconds to turn off the unit. When the Vision is on, press and release the power button to display a Shut Down Options screen. Press CANCEL to exit and return to normal operation Press the RIGHT ARROW to power off the unit Press OK to place the unit in SUSPEND mode Suspend Mode Placing the Vision in Suspend mode will turn off the display backlight and place the unit in a low power mode of operation. The Vision will continue its current mode of operation (monitoring, or paused) while in Suspend mode. Selecting Suspend mode using the power control button manually overrides, but does not alter, the user selection for Device Suspend (time selection or Never Suspend) made by accessing the Power Saver menu screen. Suspend mode can be used to conserve battery power to maximize monitoring time while operating on the internal battery. Suspend mode also allows the unit to be completely powered from a standard computer USB port without discharging the internal battery. Press the power button when the unit is off or in suspend mode to return the unit to normal operation. Scrollpad Five primary function keys and a selection-navigation scroll pad are located on the Vision front panel for accessing and displaying a variety of real time and recorded information, and control of instrument functions. The scroll pad provides a means for navigating through various screens, scrolling through menus, and making selections by pressing OK, CANCEL, or the RIGHT and LEFT arrows on the keypad. A scroll-wheel function can be used inside the Perimeter Menu Screens to advance between menu selections - lightly press the face of the scroll pad and run your finger around the perimeter of the keypad in the same manner as used for a notebook PC touch pad. Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection. A description of each of the four scroll pad keys is listed below. RIGHT > and LEFT < Arrows These keys allow scrolling between multiple screens available inside the various real time data screens, and selecting individual voltage and current input channels or a combined 3-phase display of real time waveforms. OK The OK key performs multiple functions depending on the screen being viewed when the key is pressed. Press this key while viewing real time or recorded data to display a Perimeter Menu Screen applicable to the individual real time or recorded data screen being viewed. The Perimeter Menu Screen associated with the function keys can also be accessed from each of the real time and data screens by pressing the associated real time or data function key. The OK key is also used to make selections of highlighted menu choices such as graphs, reports, additional nested menu screens, and items shown in report lists. When viewing recorded data graphs and report screens, press OK to exit the screen and return to the Data Key Perimeter Menu Screen. Data Key Perimeter Menu Screen CANCEL The CANCEL key performs multiple functions depending on the screen being viewed when the key is pressed. Press this key to exit a Perimeter Menu Screen and return to the real time or recorded data screen that was being viewed prior to accessing the associated Perimeter Menu Screen. The CANCEL key is also used to toggle the function of the RIGHT and LEFT arrow keys on the scroll pad while viewing recorded graphs. See the Viewing Recorded Data section below for a description of the CANCEL key functions when viewing recorded graphs. Display Icons Individual display icons are provided on the Vision display toolbar at the top of the screen to indicate battery charge state, record or pause mode, the operating status of Bluetooth ® wireless operation, Ethernet connection (Ethernet available on VisionPro only), USB connection, memory usage, demo mode, and Vision record/pause modes. Battery Charge A green battery symbol indicates that the Vision battery is fully charged. Partial battery charge states are indicated by partially filled battery symbols. Bluetooth ® Wireless Icons The blue colored Bluetooth ® figure mark will appear on the menu bar to indicate that this wireless feature is installed in your Vision (VisionPro and Vision models only), and indicates that there is no wireless connection between the Vision and other wireless equipment. When a valid wireless connection is established between the Vision and a PC, laptop, PDA, or PMI Field PC, a white Bluetooth ® figure mark will appear on the menu bar. During a wireless connection, the Vision graphic display will also be cleared of all other information, and a Bluetooth ® figure mark will appear on the display with the text “Bluetooth Connected”. All Vision front panel key presses will be ignored during this wireless connection. Once the wireless connection is terminated from the host, the Vision display will return to the screen that was being viewed when the wireless connection was initiated. Ethernet An Ethernet icon will appear on the menu bar to indicate a valid network connection. Memory Usage The memory icons indicate the amount of memory used for data storage. A USB icon will appear on the menu bar to indicate a connection to a USB port on another device. The demo icon will appear to indicate that the Vision is in demo mode. In this mode the Vision will display real time demonstration waveforms. Record Indicator The record mode icon will be animated when the Vision is monitoring data. Pause Indicator The Pause icon will appear when Vision data recording has been paused. If this icon appears, press and hold the power button until the Vision turns off. Turn the Vision on again by pressing the power button. Battery Charge LED A bi-color charge status LED is located on the right side of the Vision enclosure. An orange color indicates that the internal battery is charging. A green color indicates that the internal battery is fully charged. This LED will illuminate with the Vision turned on or off. Viewing Real Time Information Function Keys The function keys described below allow the display of measured and computed real time information, and access to recorded power quality data. Press a function key to access the desired screen as described below. A second press of the same function key will then access the Perimeter Menu Screen which allows user selection of various display types applicable to each function key/screen, and additional system setup choices (Pause/Record, Current Range, Backlight, Power Saver, Help - see System Settings Menus section below for a description of these system settings). Repeated presses of the same function key while in a Perimeter Menu Screen advances the selection between individual menu choices. The scroll pad feature can also be used to navigate between user choices inside the Perimeter Menu Screen (see SCROLL PAD description above). Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection and return to the main function screen. Press CANCEL to return to the main function screen without altering the current display type. Waveforms Key Provides individual displays of real time voltage, current, power, or combined voltage-current waveforms. Press the LEFT < or RIGHT > arrows on the scroll pad to select individual voltage/current input channels (1, 2, 3, 4, 3∅) or a combined 3phase display of the measured inputs. Press the [WAVEFORM LOGO] key a second time, or the OK key, for access to the Perimeter Menu Screen which allows the selection of the waveforms display type – Voltage, Current, Power, V&I – and a waveforms Snapshot feature. Use the Waveforms key or the scroll pad feature while in the Perimeter Menu Screen to navigate between user choices. (see SCROLL PAD and MAIN FUNCITON KEYS descriptions above). Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection. Snapshot – scroll to this menu and press OK to trigger a waveform capture of all measured channels of voltage and current. When selected, the message “Snapshot – waveform capture has been triggered” will be displayed on the screen to confirm that the waveforms have been saved to memory. Additional system setup choices - Record/Pause, Current Range, Backlight, Power Saver, and Help - are also available from the Data Perimeter Menu screen (See System Settings Menus section below for a description of these system settings). W Key (Meter Readings) Provides a table format of real time measurements. Three tables/screens are available by pressing the LEFT < or RIGHT > arrows on the scroll pad. The first screen provides a display of RMS voltage and current, and Voltage and Current distortion values (VTHD, ITHD). The second screen lists accumulated real, reactive, and apparent power - kWh, kVARh, and kVAh. The third screen lists several power measurements – Watts, VARs, VAs, PF, Phase, and DPF. Continued presses of either the LEFT < or RIGHT > arrows on the scroll pad will advance through these three screens in a wrap-around mode. An additional press of the W key or pressing the OK key while displaying one of the three Meter Readings screens will access the Perimeter Menu Screen. Inside this menu screen, selection of the Usage, Power, or V&I choices will select the same three screens available by pressing the LEFT < or RIGHT > arrows on the scroll pad while viewing one of the three Meter Readings screens. Additional system setup choices - Record/Pause, Current Range, Backlight, Power Saver, and Help - are also available from the W-key Perimeter Menu screen (See System Settings Menus section below for a description of these system settings). Use the W key or the scroll pad feature to navigate between user choices inside the Perimeter Menu Screen (see SCROLL PAD and MAIN FUNCITON KEYS description above). Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection. Harmonics Key The Harmonics key provides a bar graph display of the magnitude of the individual harmonic content of the measured voltage and current inputs. Harmonics are internally measured and recorded to the 51 st ; harmonics to the 15 th are shown on the graphic display. Press the LEFT < or RIGHT > arrows on the scroll pad to select individual voltage/current input channels (1, 2, 3, 4, 3∅) or a combined 3-phase display of the measured harmonics. Press the Harmonics key a second time, or the OK key, for access to the Perimeter Menu Screen which allows the selection of the harmonics display type – Voltage, Current, V&I, Turn Off Fundamental (turns off 60Hz component - automatically rescales the display to view individual harmonics), View All (displays all odd and even harmonics), Odd Only, and Even Only. Additional system setup choices - Record/Pause, Current Range, Backlight, Power Saver, and Help - are also available from the Harmonics key Perimeter Menu screen. (See System Settings Menus section below for a description of these system settings). Use the HARMONICS key or the scroll pad feature to navigate between user choices inside the Perimeter Menu Screen (see SCROLL PAD and MAIN FUNCITON KEYS description above). Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection. Vectors Key The Vectors key provides a vector display of voltage or current, or a combined display of V&I vectors. The left side of this vector display provides voltage magnitude and phase readings (if voltage or V&I is selected in the Perimeter Menu Screen), and the right side of the display provides current magnitude and phase readings (if current or V&I is selected in the Perimeter Menu Screen). Press the Vectors key a second time, or the OK key, for access to the Perimeter Menu Screen which allows the selection of the vectors display type – Voltage, Current, V&I. Additional system setup choices - Record/Pause, Current Range, Backlight, Power Saver, and Help - are also available from the Vectors key Perimeter Menu screen (See System Settings Menus section below for a description of these system settings). Use the Vectors key or the scroll pad feature to navigate between user choices inside the Perimeter Menu Screen (see SCROLL PAD and MAIN FUNCTION KEYS description above). Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection. Viewing Recorded Data Viewing Data While monitoring The Vision will continue to record until placed in the PAUSE mode, or until the recorded data is downloaded to an external PC, even while viewing recorded information. When the DATA key is used to access power quality monitoring session data, the graph or report that is displayed is the data that has been recorded up to the time when the selected data is retrieved from memory. The Vision will continue to record while the retrieved information is viewed on the graphic display. Data Key The Data key provides access to power quality monitoring session reports and graphs, similar to those available for viewing in ProVision, and power analyzer setup and initialization screens. Pressing the data key will access the data screen that was previously viewed, or a Vision Summary screen (see screen below) if the data key is being pressed for the first time. Press the Data key a second time, or the OK key on the scroll pad, to access the Data Perimeter Menu Screen which allows the selection of various graphs and reports that can be generated from the stored power quality data, or to access the Settings screen which is used to initialize the Vision power quality analyzer for a recording session and access additional system settings. Use the Data key or the scroll pad feature to navigate between user choices inside the Data Perimeter Menu Screen (see Scroll Pad description above). Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection. Data Menu Screen Descriptions Summary The Vision Summary screen indicates the start and end times of the stored monitoring session, the selected current range, the type of Hookup used (Wye or Delta), and the selected initialization settings. Intervals The Intervals menu provides access to various time interval graphs (stripcharts) – RMS V, RMS I, real power, reactive power, apparent power, PF, DPF, IFL, Pst Flicker, VTHD, ITHD, voltage and current harmonics magnitude, voltage and current harmonics phase, and help. Use the Data key or the scroll pad to navigate between user choices inside the Intervals Screen. Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection. RMS Voltage Interval Graph While viewing a recorded interval graph use the following keys for navigation between plots and recorded channels as described below: LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys – scrolls between the min, max, or ave plots for the selected channel, or scrolls between the measured channels (CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4) for the selected min, max, or ave plot. The selected channel and plot will be listed at the top of the screen. CANCEL – toggles the function of the LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys (scroll through min-max-ave, or scroll between channels for the selected plot). Waveforms The Waveforms menu provides access to graphs and reports of stored real time waveform captures – Graph V, Graph I, Graph V & I, Report V & I. Choose any of the available menus in this screen to display a list of the stored voltage and current waveforms that can be selected for viewing. Use the scroll pad to highlight an item in the list of available waveforms and press OK to select the waveform. Waveform Graph While viewing a recorded waveform use the following keys for navigation as described below: LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys – scrolls between the available waveforms in the recorded waveform list (Wave 1, Wave 2, etc.) for the selected channel, or scrolls between the measured channels (CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4, Chan 3Φ) for the selected waveform. The selected channel and waveform number will be listed at the top of the screen. CANCEL – toggles the function of the LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys (scroll through list of waveforms, or scroll between channels for the selected waveform). Transients The Transients menu provides access to a voltage and current graph or report of stored transients. Choose any of the available menus in this screen to display a list of the stored transient waveforms that can be selected for viewing. Use the scroll pad to highlight an item in the list of available waveforms and press OK to select the waveform. While viewing a recorded transient waveform use the following keys for navigation as described below: LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys – scrolls between the available waveforms in the recorded waveform list (Transient 1, Transient 2, etc.) for the selected channel, or scrolls between the measured channels (CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4, Chan 3Φ) for the selected transient. The selected channel and transient number will be listed at the top of the screen. CANCEL – toggles the function of the LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys (scroll through transient capture list, or scroll between channels for the selected transient). Event Change The Event Change menu provides access to a report of event change events. Threshold settings for this triggered report are made at the time of Vision initialization. Use the scroll pad to navigate through the list of events. Daily Profiles The Daily Profiles menu provides access to the stored daily profile graphs of RMS Voltage, RMS Current, Real Power, Reactive Power, Apparent Power, Power Factor, DPF, VTHD, ITHD, and Phase Angle. Use the Data key or the scroll pad to navigate between user choices inside the daily profile perimeter menu screen. Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection. While viewing a daily profile graph use the following keys for navigation as described below: LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys – scrolls between the available daily profiles in the daily profile perimeter menu screen (see list above) for the selected channel, or scrolls between the measured channels (CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4, Chan 3Φ) for the selected daily pro The selected channel and daily profile will be listed at the top of the screen. CANCEL – toggles the function of the LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys (scroll through daily profile menu list, or scroll between channels for the selected daily profile). Histograms The Histograms menu provides access to stored histogram data graphs and reports for voltage, current, real power, reactive power, apparent power, power factor, DPF, phase angle, voltage minute histogram, and current minute histogram. Use the Data key or the scroll pad to navigate between user choices inside the histogram perimeter menu screen. Press OK on the scroll pad to make a menu selection. While viewing a histogram graph use the following keys for navigation as described below: LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys – scrolls between the available histograms in the histogram perimeter menu screen (see list above) for the selected channel, or scrolls between the measured channels (CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4, Chan 3Φ) for the selected histogram. The selected channel and histogram will be listed at the top of the screen. CANCEL – toggles the function of the LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys (scroll through histogram menu list, or scroll between channels for the selected histogram). Flicker The Flicker menu provides access to a report of triggered flicker events according to the IEEE 141 flicker standard. Threshold settings for this triggered report are made at the time of Vision initialization. Use the scroll pad to navigate through the list of triggered flicker events. Sig Change The Sig Change menu provides access to a report of stored significant change events that were triggered according to the significant change voltage threshold setting selected at the time of Vision initialization. Use the scroll pad to navigate through the list of triggered significant change events. Abnormal Voltage The Abnormal Voltage menu provides access to a report of stored abnormal voltage events that were triggered according to the abnormal voltage threshold settings selected at the time of Vision initialization (misc screen in Advanced settings in ProVision). Use the scroll pad to navigate through the list of triggered abnormal voltage events Energy Usage The Energy Usage menu provides access to a report of accumulated real, reactive, and apparent power for each measured input channel. Power Outage The Power Outage menu provides access to a report of detected power outages, which includes the date and time of the start and end of the outages, and duration of the outages. Settings Press the Data key, and then select the Settings menu to produce a menu screen that provides access to the Vision initialization screens, the Identify screen, and several Vision system settings. A description of the Identify, Owner, Network, Beep On/Beep Off, Date/Time, and Demo Mode On/Off menus is listed below. See Systems Settings Menu section below for a description of Current Range, Backlight, Graph Colors, Power Saver, and About menus. Refer to the power quality analyzer Initialization section below for a description of the Initialize Menu screens. Identify – provides basic Vision system information – unit type, serial number, firmware version, GUI version, number of voltage and current channels, power quality analyzer status, and memory size and usage information. Owner – allows user input of Vision owner information Network (VisionPro models only) – provides setup and display of Ethernet network settings Current Range – see Systems Settings Menu section below for a description of this menu. Backlight – see Systems Settings Menu section below for a description of this menu. Graph Colors - see Systems Settings Menu section below for a description of this menu. Power Saver – see Systems Settings Menu section below for a description of this menu. Beep Off – turns OFF the beep sound when using the scroll pad feature. Beep On - turns ON the beep sound when using the scroll pad feature. Date/Time – allows setting of the Vision internal real time clock Making Selections in Date/Time screen To change a setting use the scroll pad to highlight the desired date or time adjustment box. When highlighted, the box border will change to a BLUE color. Select the box by pressing OK – the box border will change to a RED color. To cancel this selection, press CANCEL button on the scroll pad – the box border will return to a BLUE color. With a box selected (RED border), use the RIGHT or LEFT arrow buttons to change the time setting, then press OK to set the new value. The settings box will return to a BLUE color. Scroll to a new time setting if desired and make any additional changes as described above. With the desired settings made, scroll to SET and press OK to save the new settings. A DATE AND TIME SET message will appear on the screen to confirm storage of the new values. Choosing CANCEL on the Set Date & Time screen or pressing the CANCEL button on the scroll pad will abort the process and return to the last viewed Data screen without saving the changed settings. Demo Mode Off – turns OFF the Vision DEMO mode operation and returns the unit to normal mode display of real time voltage and current waveforms (from V & I inputs) and measured data. Demo Mode On - turns ON the Vision DEMO mode operation – display of pre-recorded voltage and current waveforms and measured data. Using Cursors to Measure Data Cursors are available to help review and analyze data presented in the interval graphs, captured waveforms and transients, daily profiles, and histograms screens. A zoom feature is also provided in all of these screens except daily profiles. To access the cursors while viewing a selected graph, use the scroll pad feature to scroll in a clockwise direction. A vertical cursor will appear at the left side of the screen and will move from left to right. A small box will appear at the right side of the screen to indicate the value of the data, applicable to the selected graph, at the position marked by the cursor. Scroll slowly to advance the cursor in small increments, and scroll rapidly to accelerate the movement of the cursor to the right. When the cursor is visible on the screen, press CANCEL once to turn off the cursor marker. Pressing CANCEL again will return the CANCEL button to the normal CANCEL-TOGGLE feature described above in the Viewing Recorded Data section. Using Cursors to Zoom Data The cursor feature can also be used to zoom-in while viewing graph plots. Use the scroll pad to position the cursor just to the left of the desired plot area where you want to zoom. Press OK to display a second cursor just to the right of the first cursor, and fix the cursor 1 position. Scroll to position cursor 2 at the desired position just to the right of the desired zoom area. Press OK to zoom-in on the bracketed graph area. When zoomed, the scroll pad can be used in the same manner to position the cursors for additional zoom levels, or to position a single cursor to measure the graph value at the cursor position as described above. Press CANCEL at any time to exit the zoomed display and return to the normal display of the selected graph. Systems Settings Menus Adjustment of several Vision system parameters is provided as menu choices located in each perimeter menu screen accessed from the four front panel real time function keys. The system settings menus are named Pause/Record, Range, Backlight, Power Saver, and Help . To access these menus, press the WAVEFORMS, W, HARMONICS, or VECTORS keys, then press again to access the perimeter menu screen. Scroll to highlight the desired system settings menu. A description of the menu function will be displayed on the screen. Select a menu by pressing OK on the scroll pad. Record/Pause When Record is displayed as the menu choice, Vision data recording is paused. If Pause is displayed, the Vision is monitoring data as specified during the initialization process. Press OK to record or pause a recording session. A screen will appear to confirm the operating mode change. Current Range This menu allows selection of input current range prior to power analyzer initialization. Use the RIGHT and LEFT ARROW buttons to adjust the current range, press OK to set the range, or CANCEL to exit without changing the range. Backlight This menu allows adjustment of display brightness. Use RIGHT and LEFT ARROW buttons to adjust the screen brightness. Press OK to exit. Graph Colors This menu allows setting the colors that are used to display the individual plots on the real time and recorded data graphs and waveforms. To change a display color, use the scroll pad to highlight the desired settings box. When highlighted, the box border will change to a BLUE color. Select the box by pressing OK on the scroll pad – the box border will change to a RED color. To cancel this selection, press CANCEL button on the scroll pad – the box border will return to a BLUE color. With a box selected (RED border), use the RIGHT or LEFT arrow buttons to scroll through the available colors, then press OK to set the new color selection. The settings box will return to a BLUE color. Scroll to a new color setting box if desired and make any additional changes as described above. When the desired color selections have been made in the Graph Colors screen, scroll to Save Colors and press OK to store the new color settings, or press the CANCEL button on the scroll pad to abort the process and return to the last viewed Data screen without saving any changed colors. Scroll to Defaults and press OK to return the graph colors to the default color settings. Power Saver This menu allows adjustment of times for Backlight Dimmer, Backlight Off, and Device Suspend mode. Time settings represent the total elapsed time allowed with no detected key presses before dimming the display, turning off the display backlight, or entering device suspend mode. Device Suspend Mode – battery power saving operatio n where the backlight is turned off (screen not visible) and internal circuitry is placed in a power down mode of operation. If the Vision has been initialized and a data recording session is in progress, the Vision continues to record while in suspend mode. Pressing any front panel key will return the Vision to the normal mode of operation with the graphic display visible. Making Selections in Power Saver screen To change a setting use the scroll pad to highlight the desired time or mode adjustment box. When highlighted, the box border will change to a BLUE color. Select the box by pressing OK – the box border will change to a RED color. To cancel this selection, press CANCEL button on the scroll pad – the box border will return to a BLUE color. With a box selected (RED border), use the RIGHT or LEFT arrow buttons to change the time setting, then press OK to set the new value. The settings box will return to a BLUE color. Scroll to a new time setting if desired and make any additional changes as described above. With the desired settings made, scroll to SAVE SETTINGS and press OK on the scroll pad to store the new values in Vision memory. A SETTINGS SAVED message will appear on the screen to confirm storage of the new values. Choosing CANCEL on the Power Saver screen or pressing the CANCEL button on the scroll pad will abort the process and return to the last viewed Data screen without saving any changed settings. Help Press this key to access the Help screen applicable to the real time function key that was pressed to access this screen. power quality analyzer Initialization The Vision power analyzers must be initialized before monitoring data. This is done by accessing the Vision internal Initialization Setup screen, or by connecting the power quality analyzer to a computer and using ProVision software to make the initialization settings. PC connection can be made by using the supplied USB cable or a Bluetooth ® wireless connection with your computer, PDA, or Field PC. See the “PC and Laptop Communications with the Vision power analyzers” section for more information on how to communicate with your Vision using your computer. For more detailed information on initialization, see the software documentation. Initialization Settings Presets To access the preset initialization settings screen, press the Data key, scroll to the Settings menu and press OK, then select Initialize and press OK. This will display the Initialize Setting Presets screen. Scroll to the desired initialization setup and press OK. An Initialize power quality analyzer screen will appear, prompting the user to confirm or cancel the initialization process. Press the scroll pad OK button to initialize the Vision, or press CANCEL to abort. The initialization settings screen provides six different initialization setups that are stored in the Vision. These fixed settings can be selected to initialize the Vision without requiring connection to the power quality analyzer from a computer. The preset settings for the VisionLite, Vision, and VisionPro are listed below. If different initialization settings are desired, connect the Vision power quality analyzer to a computer and use ProVision software to make custom initialization settings. Preset Initialization Settings Motor Start The motor start settings records RMS voltage and current, with a 1 cycle interval setting for the Vision and VisionPro, and a 1 second interval setting for the VisionLite. These time intervals provide greater time resolution for precise measurement of motor start inrush currents and resulting voltage sags. 24 Hour monitoring, 1 Week monitoring, 1 Month monitoring As shown in the table below, these settings record nearly all of the available time interval graphs except individual harmonics, and IFL flicker. The waveform capture settings for this preset initialization type are shown in the table below. Harmonics The Harmonics settings record RMS voltage, RMS current, real power, power factor, displacement power factor, VTHD, ITHD, individual odd harmonics to the 51st, and frequency. The waveform capture settings for this preset initialization type are shown in the table below. Flicker The flicker settings record RMS voltage, RMS current, VTHD, ITHD, frequency, IFL flicker, and Pst flicker. The waveform capture settings for this preset initialization type are shown in the table below. VisionLit e Initialization Presets Vision and VisionPro Initialization Presets FlexCT and TLAR Current Probe Setup If FlexCT or TLAR probes are to be used for current measurement during monitoring they should be connected to the Vision and installed prior to initialization. Prior to initializing the Vision, select the appropriate current range as describe above in the Systems Settings Menus , Current Range section. The current range setting selected prior to initialization can be changed during a recording session, however switching current ranges may end the current monitoring session. Selecting a different current range - If a different current range is selected during a recording session, a user prompt will appear stating that the old monitoring session will be erased and a new one will be started. If the recording session is paused, the user can switch ranges and clamps as desired - if the final current range selected when the recording is resumed is the same as the range originally selected, the recording will resume normally. If a different range is selected when the recording is resumed a user prompt will appear as described above. When the power quality analyzer is initialized, the user will be prompted before starting the recording. If the recording is not started, the unit will be paused, but the old monitoring will be erased. While the unit is paused, the user can change current ranges and CT probe types. When the unit is placed in the record mode, the Vision will use the selected current range setting for the duration of the recording. The current range setting can also be changed with no CTs connected to the Vision. In this case the selected current range will be used when the FlexCT or TLAR probes are connected, if possible. If not (ex: the 10A range is selected and flex CTs are connected – 10A range not available for FlexCT), the user will be warned that the closest available range will be used. Ending a recording Session When disconnecting the Vision voltage leads and current CTs at the end of a recording session, place the Vision in the PAUSE mode prior to disconnecting the leads and CTs. This will prevent triggering and monitoring false voltage and current events which could possibly overwrite valid data. To place the Vision in the PAUSE mode, press one of the four real time function keys (Waveforms, Readings, Harmonics, or Vectors) to access the Perimeter Menu Screen. Scroll to the menu choice PAUSE and press the OK button on the scroll pad. The message PAUSED should appear on the screen to verify that the recording has been stopped. To start the recording again without reinitializing the unit, press one of the four real time function keys (Waveforms, Readings, Harmonics, or Vectors) to access the Perimeter Menu Screen, scroll to the menu choice RECORD and press the OK button on the scroll pad. The message monitoring should appear on the screen to verify that the recording session has resumed. To stop monitoring prior to disconnecting your Vision, you may also connect to the power quality analyzer and stop the recording session using PMI software such as ProVision, PMIScan, or ProVision Mobile. Downloading Data The Vision power analyzer must be turned on for data downloading. Since a typical USB port will not provide the total operating power required by the Vision power quality analyzer (with display backlight on), some reduction in internal battery charge will still occur while connected to a USB port. After the Vision has recorded the desired data, it can be downloaded to another computer device using ProVision, PMIScan, or ProVision Mobile. Connection to the Vision for download is made through the USB communications cable or a Bluetooth ® wireless connection (VisionPro and Vision models only) with a laptop - see PC and Laptop Communications with Vision power analyzers. You may also use a Bluetooth ® wireless connection with some Palm ® PDAs (see PDA Communications with Vision power quality analyzers) or a PMI Field PC (see Field PC Communications with Vision power analyzers). The Vision will stop monitoring during downloading to an external PC. If the Vision was not placed in the PAUSE mode using the Vision keypad prior to the download, the Vision will resume monitoring whenever the USB cable is removed from the unit, or the Bluetooth ® wireless connection is terminated, and will append the new data to the existing Vision monitoring session. Following a download, the recorded data is still in the Vision and can be downloaded again if the unit has not been re-initialized. The data is erased when the Vision is initialized for a new monitoring session. If the Vision is re-initialized following the download, the existing Vision monitoring session will end and the recorded data residing in Vision memory will be erased, after which it will begin a new monitoring session. Analyzing Data See the ProVision documentation to learn about analyzing data recorded by the Vision. This documentation is located in the “Manuals” section on the included CD-ROM. Data downloaded with PMIScan or ProVision Mobile must be imported into ProVision to analyze. Ethernet Communications wit h VisionPro™; power quality analyzers The VisionPro power quality analyzer has the ability to communicate over a LAN (Local Area Network) via Ethernet communications. The power analyzer connects to your local area network using the supplied Ethernet communications cable (see the “Communications Port Connections” section for more information). Communication settings are adjustable through ProVision, which allows customization of the settings for all VisionPro power quality analyzers initialized with your computer. To change the communication settings for all VisionPro power analyzers, click on [Options] and [Communication Port Settings] in ProVision. You can then choose the following: Enable or disable networking Change the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) port number Change the UDP (User Datagram Protocol) port Enable/disable DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Enable/disable password protection for Ethernet communications Change the password Change the subnet mask and gateway (when DHCP is disabled) Restore all settings to PMI defaults To change the Ethernet communications settings for an individual power quality analyzer that is connected, right-click on the VisionPro under the “Device” tree in ProVision, and click [LAN Setup] . You can then change all of the settings that are available under “Communication Port Settings” (note: the changes made under “LAN Setup” will apply only to the VisionPro you selected). In addition, you can choose the IP address of the power quality analyzer, send settings to the power quality analyzer, and retrieve the Ethernet communication settings from the power quality analyzer. PC and Laptop Communications with Vision™; power quality analyzers Vision power quality analyzers can communicate with ProVision running on a desktop PC or a laptop to perform identify, initialize, or download operations. The following operations can be performed using a laptop or desktop PC using ProVision: Identify power analyzer to display serial number, firmwar e version, and any options Initialize power quality analyzer with customized, user-selected settings Set the date and time Retrieve the initialization settings from a Vision power analyzer Download recorded data from power quality analyzer View real time data To connect to the Vision using your desktop PC or laptop, you can use either the supplied USB communications cable or Bluetooth ® wireless technology (VisionPro and Vision only) if your desktop or laptop has this capability. If you would like to communicate using USB, use the USB communications cable that was included with your Vision to connect the power quality analyzer to your computer. Plug the USB Type A end of the communications cable into your computer’s USB receptacle. Connect the mini-USB plug on the other end of the cable into the mini-USB receptacle located under the protective rubber tab on the right side of the Vision housing. If your laptop or desktop computer is equipped with Bluetooth ® wireless technology, or if you have purchased a Bluetooth ® USB adapter, you can communicate with the Vision using Bluetooth ® wireless technology (VisionPro or Vision models only). See the ProVision software documentation on the supplied CD-ROM for more information on Bluetooth ® and USB communications. Field PC Communications wit h Vision™; power quality analyzers ProVision Mobile running on a PMI Field PC can be used to communicate with the Vision to identify and initialize the power quality analyzer, download data, and view real time waveforms. You can also use the Bluetooth ® technology capability of the Field PC to communicate with the Vision (VisionPro and Vision models only). PDA Communications with the Vision™; power quality analyzer The following operations can be performed using selected Palm ® PDAs and the PMIScan and PMIView software: Identify the power quality analyzer Initialize the power quality analyzer Download recorded data View real-time data values View real-time voltage, current, and power waveforms View real-time vector diagrams View real time harmonic content With the Vision turned on, make sure it is in range of the PDA for Bluetooth ® wireless communications (VisionPro and Vision models only). To view real-time waveforms, vector diagrams, or harmonics, open PMIView. If you would like to view real-time data readings from the power quality analyzer, open PMIScan on your PDA. PMIScan has two modes: LDU (which stands for “Local Display Unit”) and Comm (“Communication”). LDU allows the user to scroll through a series of screens showing real-time displays of the measurements that have been enabled, which may include voltage, current, power, phase angle, power factor, displacement power factor, and harmonics. Comm mode, however, allows you to download data or retrieve settings from the Vision, along with initializing, identifying, or setting the date and time of the power quality analyzer. For more information on viewing real-time data and communicating with your Vision using PMIScan, see the PMIScan documentation on the included CD-ROM. What the Vision™; Records The job of any power quality monitor is to record interesting or relevant data, while ignoring unexceptional data. The difficult part for a monitor is deciding which events are important. This is the primary problem of data reduction. A power quality analyzer that captured every 60 Hz waveform during a week’s monitoring would never miss an event, but would present the user with millions of useless cycles. Conversely, a power analyzer whose thresholds are set incorrectly may not record anything. Staying between these two extremes involves a balance of thresholds, settings, and record types. The monitor will measure an enormous amount of data on its voltage and current inputs – the Vision measures over 1 billion samples per day! Ideally, all this data is reduced to a small report which just shows the important events and measurements. The sifting of data into specific record types accomplishes this task. Triggered Record Types Vision records can be divided into two classes: triggered and non-triggered. Triggered records are event driven. These record types are triggered by a combination of triggering logic and adjustable thresholds, usually voltage-based. If a trigger never occurs, nothing is recorded for that record type. As more triggers occur, the Vision collects more data for that record type. The advantage of this class is that nothing is recorded unless something happens. In the ideal case, no problems occur, so nothing is recorded, and no data analysis is necessary. If a trigger does occur, then the Vision logs the event for later analysis. This is a powerful data-reduction tool, and can reduce huge amounts of data into a few small records containing all the significant events. The disadvantage is that success completely depends on good thresholds and settings. A low threshold, such as 0.5%,maycause the Vision to log records that are not really worth analyzing. These extraneous records often hide the few important ones. Conversely, a higher threshold may cause the power quality analyzer to ignore important disturbances. Although it is often possible to use regulatory limits or other known standards to set thresholds, choosing the proper thresholds can be a problem in itself: sometimes you need to know something about the disturbance before you can set proper thresholds to capture it. Despite these potential pitfalls, triggered record types are powerful tools in power line monitoring. They are most useful for capturing voltage disturbances and power quality problems. The captured events are then presented in a text report. Triggered record types include power outage, abnormal voltage, event change (i.e. event capture), significant change, and waveform capture. Non-triggered Record Types The second class of record types is not event driven. These record types are always logging data, regardless of how interesting, important, or unimportant the data may be. The classic example is a paper stripchart, which continuously logs data. There are no thresholds to set, although there may be a parameter to determine how often to collect data. The logged data is usually presented as a graph of data points. Although there may be a large amount of data, using a graph lets the eye pick out important data. Problems such as sags and swells are easy to see in the interval graphs. In addition to voltage quality studies, these record types are used for finding daily trends in current or power values, measuring power factor, etc. The advantage of not having thresholds to set is that there is no question about what data will be recorded. The disadvantage is that sometimes much of the recorded data is unimportant. For non- power quality data such as power factor measurement, there is no disadvantage. These record types include interval graphs, daily profiles, histograms, and energy usage. Graphs and Reports The Vision can record every available record type simultaneously. Each record type has its own fixed memory allocation, so there is no danger of one errant record type filling the Vision memory to the exclusion of other record types (for example, event capture can never overflow into interval graph memory). Thus the choice usually is not which record types to record, but which record types to examine. In order to answer that question, a good understanding of each record type is required. The details of each record type, and potential uses, are described in the following subsections. Interval Graphs The interval graph is one of the most useful record types. In a single interval graph, you can see power quality events such as single-cycle voltage sags and current surges, as well as long-term voltage trends. With the interval graph, one can examine an entire monitoring session at a glance. What is Recorded The only setting for the interval graph is the interval. This interval, which can be as small as one cycle (VisionPro and Vision models) to as large as four hours, determines how often the power quality analyzer records an interval graph data point. Every interval graph the Vision is monitoring uses the same interval settings. During the interval period, the Vision keeps a history of the largest and smallest one-cycle values for each interval graph, as well as a running average. At the end of the interval, the maximum, minimum, and average values for that time period are recorded as an interval graph data point. For example, if the interval is set to one minute (a typical setting), at the end of each minute, the voltage interval graph will record the average RMS voltage, the minimum one-cycle RMS voltage, and the maximum one-cycle RMS voltage, for that particular minute. All of the 3600 cycles that occur during that minute are used to calculate the average, and for maximum and minimum detection. For more information on these calculations, please see “Calculations” at http://www.powermonitors.com/support/calculations.pdf . These values are presented to the user as three traces on a graph: a maximum, a minimum, and an average. The average trace roughly corresponds to interval graphs as a graph from a paper stripchart power quality analyzer. The maximum and minimum graphs, however, are unique. Each gives the worst-case value for every interval, with single-cycle measurement resolution. When the interval graph data fills the allotted memory, the Vision has two options: it can either stop monitoring interval graphs, or go into “wrap-around” mode. In “wrap-around” mode, the oldest interval graph data points are erased to make room for the new ones as they are collected, which allows the Vision to have the latest data at all times. This choice is made by the user during the initialization setup. If the “Interval Graph Overwrite” box is checked in ProVision the Vision will go into “wrap-around” mode as needed, otherwise it will stop interval graph monitoring when memory is full. For example, if there is memory for four weeks of interval graphs, and the Vision is left in the field for six weeks, then it will have either the first four weeks or the last four weeks of interval graph data, depending on the wrap-around setting. Every Vision can record interval graphs of voltage, current, real power, reactive power, apparent power, power factor, and harmonics magnitudes. Typically, only a few interval graphs are needed at one time. All interval graphs share the same memory, so enabling more interval graphs reduces the total interval graph monitoring time (doubling the number of interval graphs you wish to record will cut your total interval graph monitoring time in half, etc.). When creating an interval graph or report, any “gaps” in the data due to a power outage are filled with zeroes. This happens whenever the Vision loses power on its channel 1 input, and the internal ride-through battery discharges to its cutoff voltage. Typical Settings and Suggested Uses There are three settings for the interval graph record types. The primary setting is the interval. This time setting determines how often the interval graph data is recorded. Since the interval graphs always give worst case one-cycle maximum and minimum values, the interval can be set to any time value without a loss of measurement resolution. For example, even if the interval is set to 15 minutes, the maximum and minimum one-cycle RMS values for each 15-minute period are recorded. What is lost by setting the interval to larger values is time resolution. If there is a voltage minimum of 90V RMS during a15 minute graph interval period, the minimum voltage data point will indicate that the voltage sagged to 90V for at least one cycle, but this does not indicate the time or duration of this sag during that particular 15 minute period. A smaller interval, such as one minute, provides a finer time resolution. The one cycle interval allowed for the VisionPro and Vision models offers excellent time resolution, but consumes memory 3600 times faster than a one-minute setting. The exact time of a voltage dip is often not as important as the size – in that case, any reasonable interval setting is fine. The most common setting is one minute. This is a good compromise between frequent data collection and long monitoring time. Since most loads that start and stop usually run for longer than a minute, the start and stop effects (such as startup current) are easily spotted in the interval graph. An example is an air conditioner load: a forty-minute period of cycling on and off is obvious in the interval graph as twenty data points at one load current, then twenty data points at low current, all connected by straight lines on the graph. The first interval of the high current period will indicate a much larger current maximum than the rest due to the starting inrush current of the air conditioner. The voltage interval will probably indicate a sag at the same time. The most frequent reason to use an interval smaller than one minute is for large loads that cycle on and off more frequently than one minute. For example, if an elevator is causing power quality problems, and it only takes 10 or 20 seconds to start at one floor and stop at another, a one-second interval is probably necessary. Otherwise the entire elevator travel will occur during a single interval. The best use in this case is to set the interval graph to one second, cycle the load (such as the elevator) for a while in an attempt to reproduce the problem, and then download the data recorded by the Vision. In general, the interval should be smaller than the shortest cycling time of a problem load. The most frequent reason to use an interval larger than one minute is to increase the recording time. Setting the interval to two minutes doubles the recording time without a serious loss of time resolution. Other common settings are five and fifteen minutes, used to match metering or billing increments or regulatory time periods. The second interval graph setting is the “Interval Graph Overwrite” mode or “wrap-around” mode. The best setting for this depends on how the Vision will be used. Some users leave a power analyzer at a problem site until the customer calls with a power quality complaint. The power quality analyzer is set to a small interval, such as one minute or thirty seconds, and interval graph overwrite is enabled. With interval graph overwrite enabled the interval graphs always have the latest few days of data in memory, by discarding the old data. The data from the Vision is then downloaded, and has the most recent days of interval graph data in memory no matter how long it was monitoring. This recent data will most likely indicate the voltage disturbance. Other users will disable interval graph overwrite, and leave a power analyzer at a problem site where the power quality problem is expected to occur soon. The Vision will record the first few weeks of interval graph data, and then it will stop interval graph monitoring. The Vision can be downloaded later, knowing that the beginning of the recording session is locked in memory and will not be overwritten. Other users always download the power quality analyzer before it fills up interval graph memory, which make the interval graph overwrite setting irrelevant. The choice depends on the application in which the Vision will be used. The factory default setting is for interval graph overwrite to be enabled. The third interval graph setting allows you to choose which interval graphs are enabled. For all Vision power quality analyzers, you can record the following interval graphs: RMS voltage RMS current Real power Apparent power Reactive power Phase angle Power factor Displacement power factor Voltage THD (total harmonic distortion) Current THD (total harmonic distortion) Frequency IFL (Instantaneous flicker level) PST (Perception-short-term flicker) The total monitoring time is shown by ProVision as interval graphs are enabled and disabled during the Vision initialization setup. Another method to increase interval graph memory is to reduce the number of recorded channels. If only one channel is needed on the Vision, changing the number of channels from four to two, for example gives twice as much monitoring time. For quantities such as power factor, phase angle, THD, etc., often the average is much more important than the one-cycle maximum and minimum values. The maximum and minimum traces on the graph may be turned off so that they do not obscure the average trace. Daily Profiles Daily profiles are used to spot daily trends in voltage, current, power factor, etc. The entire monitoring session is combined to form an “average” 24-hour day, which is plotted in a format that resembles an interval graph. Power quality issues are usually not addressed with daily profiles (except perhaps consistently low or high line voltage or harmonic distortion). Daily profiles are typically used to review average line conditions such as regulation voltage, load current. What is Recorded Each measured quantity has only one daily profile per channel in a recording session. For example, there are four voltage daily profiles recorded for a Vision in a recording session, one per channel. The profile is averaged over the entire monitoring session. This average is created by dividing the 24-hour day into 96 time periods, each 15 minutes long. During each 15-minute period, the power quality analyzer computes the average value for that profile (voltage, current, etc.). This 15-minute average is then averaged with all the previous days’ averages of that 15-minute period. For example, the first voltage daily profile data point is the average voltage during the 15-minute period from 12:00am to 12:15am, averaged again over the entire monitoring time. If a Vision is monitoring for a week, then this 12:00-12:15am period is averaged seven times over the entire week. There are no settings for daily profiles. All available daily profiles in Vision power quality analyzers are always enabled, regardless of the settings for any other record types. Memory does not run out for a daily profile ; data is averaged as long as the recording session continues (there is a practical limit of about a year). The Vision records a profile for voltage, current, real power, reactive power, apparent power, power factor, voltage THD, current THD, and phase angle. Suggested Uses Daily profiles are typically used to profile or characterize a parameter, such as average load current or power factor. Since the profile is supposed to reflect average line conditions, the more loads included in the recording, the better the average. Monitoring a single small load such as a small office building will not create a very good profile of distribution line conditions (such as distribution line power factor), since the building would be a small part of the total distribution load. Voltage is an exception in that anywhere can be a good place to create a profile: every other load (at least those nearby) will see the same distribution line voltage. The ideal location for creating power factor profiles is where a capacitor bank would be placed to correct power factor. The voltage daily profile is normally used to identify voltage regulation problems, or other steady-state low/high voltage issues. The current profile can be used to identify daily trends in load current. This is also possible with the apparent power profile. Power factor and reactive power profiles can be used to set capacitor bank timers to correct for power factor only when necessary during the day. The voltage and current THD profiles show when harmonic distortion is present during the day. The more days the Vision records, the better the average created by the profile. A monitoring session that just lasts a single day does not incorporate any daily averaging at all. Since a profile starts with all zeros, a recording session that does not even last 24 hours will include some 15-minute blocks with the data still zeroed. A monitoring session that does not even last 15 minutes will have all zeroes for a daily profile. An interval graph can also be used for profiling, but that is not ideal. The interval graph interval is usually set to an interval faster than 15 minutes; a fast interval can show too much information, making it hard to form a good average profile. Often the interval graph only has enough memory for a week or two, limiting the averaging time; the daily profiles have no such limit. Most importantly, the interval graph does not divide the data into an average day period, so it can be difficult to spot daily trends in the graph. Cycle Histograms The cycle histograms contain valuable power quality information as well as information for distribution line profiling. Questions such as “what were the absolute highest and lowest RMS voltage?”, “how many cycles was the voltage below 80V?”, and “what are the most common load currents?” are easily answered. The histograms also contain the raw data necessary to answer more complicated statistical questions such as “What is the probability of a voltage sag below 100V?” and “What high and low limits does the line voltage meet 99.99% of the time?” While the daily profiles give average current, power factor, etc. for distribution profiling, the histograms show what values are the most common– the “mode” in statistical terms. What is Recorded A histogram divides a measurement range into many bins. For example, in the Vision, the voltage histogram divides the 150V voltage range into 150 bins, each one-volt wide, giving a bin for 0V, a bin for 1V, 2V, all the way to 150V. After each 60Hz cycle is measured, the voltage is rounded to the nearest volt and placed in the appropriate bin. The bins are counters that accumulate the number of cycles at each voltage value. If the 108V bin has a count of 45, then there have been 45 cycles with an RMS voltage of 108V sometime during the recording session. The histogram does not include time information: those 45 cycles could have occurred anytime during the recording session. There may have been 45 cycles in a row, or three 15-cycle sags, or 45 isolated sags spread out during the entire monitoring session. (To recover the time information, use the interval graph or an event-based report.) Every interval graph maximum and minimum value will have a non-zero count in the corresponding histogram. For example, if the voltage interval graph shows six sags to 108V sometime during the recording session, there should be a count of at least six in the histogram at 108V. The count will probably be somewhat larger, unless each individual sag was only one cycle long. There are no settings for histograms. All available histograms in the Vision are always enabled, regardless of the settings for any other record types. Memory does not run out for a histogram ; measurements continue to be added to the bins (by incrementing the bin counters) as long as the recording session lasts. Suggested Uses The power of the histogram is that every cycle is included in the report, and is included in the count of one of the bins. If the counts in a histogram are totaled, the result will represent the total number of cycles for the duration of the recording session (minus any time during a power outage). Histograms are presented as a bar graph and a report. The report can be easier to read than the graph. The absolute highest and lowest voltages during the recording session are found by finding the highest and lowest bins with a non-zero count. At that point, you also know how many cycles the voltage was at those extremes, and by glancing at the nearby bins, you know how many cycles the voltage was near those extremes. For example, if all the bins below 110V are zero, then you immediately know that there was not even a single cycle of voltage below 110V anytime during the recording session. If the count at 111V is 1,352,200, then the voltage was at 111V for over 6 hours (1,352,200=6.26 × (60 × 60 × 60)). By totaling the counts for all the bins in a voltage range (for example, 0 to 150V), you find how many cycles the voltage was in that range. More complicated power quality questions can be answered by exporting the histogram data to a spreadsheet. By dividing each count by the total of all the counts, the histogram data is normalized, and can represent a sample probability distribution function. If a normal, or bell-shaped probability distribution is fit to this data, a standard deviation is created that can be used to answer “what high and low limits does the line voltage meet 99.99% of the time?”.A cumulative sum over the data will convert the distribution function into a sample cumulative probability function. Correlations between channels can be performed by comparing the probability functions of channels. For the voltage histogram, the user is generally interested in the few cycles that are outside certain limits, not the vast majority of cycles that are perfectly normal. These few cycles usually represent power quality issues. The current, power, and power factor histograms are useful for distribution line or load profiling. For these histograms, the few cycles at the extremes are usually unimportant: the vast majority of the counts in the middle of the histogram range is the most significant and relevant data. Minute Histograms The minute histogram provides a much “smoother” version of the cycle histogram. Quick sags and swells are averaged out of the data, to show the nominal voltage or current level every minute. Voltage regulation problems are easy to see in the minute histogram. What is Recorded The minute histogram is similar to the cycle histogram. During each minute of the recording session, the voltage is averaged (every cycle is included).At the end of the minute, the histogram bin counter for that average value is incremented. The result is a histogram of one-minute average voltages, instead of one-cycle voltages. For example, if the voltage were 123V for 55 seconds, then 115V for 5 seconds, the average would be 122V, and the 122V bin counter would be incremented. If the interval graph interval is also set to one minute, then the interval graph voltage averages will match the minute histogram counts. Like the cycle histograms, there are no settings for the minute histogram. All available minute histograms in an Vision are always recorded, regardless of the settings for any other record types. Memory does not run out for a minute histogram ; it just keeps classifying measurements into the bins (by incrementing the bin counters) as long as the recording session lasts. All Vision power analyzers will record voltage and current minute histograms. Suggested Uses The voltage minute histogram can reveal voltage regulation problems. Ideally, the line voltage should be at the same value every minute. The larger the spread in the minute histogram, the more the voltage is varying. The center of the spread is (hopefully) the target regulation voltage. This information is also present to an extent in the voltage. Typical Settings and Suggested Uses There are no settings for the energy usage report. This report can be used to measure energy consumption of a monitored load, or accumulated reactive significant change power in power factor studies. A revenue meter that does not total negative power, or does not include the effects of harmonics, may show readings that differ from this report. Significant Change The significant change record type tracks quick fluctuations in the line voltage, with single-cycle response, while ignoring gradual changes. Voltage events are time-stamped to the second, and listed in a report. If the report is empty, then there were no voltage events that exceeded the trigger threshold. This is a quick way to gauge the voltage power quality, because only voltage fluctuations exceeding the threshold are listed. Trigger Logic The significant change record type uses a voltage threshold parameter. At the end of each second during the recording session, the largest and smallest RMS voltages for that second are compared with the “standard” significant change voltage. This standard voltage starts as the nominal voltage picked by the power quality analyzer during the two-minute countdown (typically 120V, 208V, 240V, 277V, or 480V). If the difference between the standard voltage and either the maximum or minimum voltage was more than the threshold, a significant change is recorded. In addition, the voltage (either the maximum or minimum) that caused the trigger becomes the new “standard” until the next significant change. As an example, consider a “standard” voltage of 119V, and a threshold of 2V. After 40 seconds, the voltage drops to 118V. No significant change is recorded because the 1V change is smaller than the 2V threshold. After another 35 seconds, the voltage increases to 120V. The change is 2V, from 118V to 120V, but no significant change occurs because 120V is only 1V greater than the “standard” of 119V. After another 23 seconds, the voltage increases to 121V. A significant change is triggered because the 1V increase created a 2Vdifference between the 121 maximum voltages for that second, and the 119V standard. The standard voltage is now set to 121V, until the next significant change. Only one significant change per second can be recorded per channel. If both the single-cycle maximum and minimum meet the threshold in the same second, the voltage that is furthest from the standard becomes the new standard. What is Recorded When a significant change is triggered, the triggering voltage is recorded, along with a date and timestamp (to the second), and the channel number. Significant change is recorded separately for each voltage channel (although they share the same voltage threshold What the Vision™; Records • parameter). If significant change memory is filled, significant change monitoring stops. Both voltage channels use the same significant change memory. Every Vision power analyzer can record over one thousand records. Typical Settings and Suggested Uses The default setting for the significant change threshold is 3V. This setting can be as small as 1V or as large as 8V. Normally, a threshold between 2V and 5V is appropriate, depending on the nominal voltage. A single-cycle disturbance, such as a sag, will trigger significant change if the sag is greater than the threshold. If this happens, the sag voltage becomes the standard, which will trigger another significant change if the voltage returns to its previous level. The significant change report is very useful for determining how often, and to what degree the line voltage is fluctuating. If there are no significant change records, then there were no fluctuations greater than the threshold. A significant change record can be correlated with the interval graph by using its timestamp. Find the same time period in the interval graph to see what the voltage and current were before and after. This may give some indication of the cause of the disturbance. All significant change records that occur during a graph interval period will be included in a single interval data point, consisting of a maximum, minimum, and average value. For example, if the interval is one minute, and six significant changes occur within one minute, they may all fall into the same interval graph data point. (They are still reported individually in the significant change report). The significant change report provides more detail than the interval graph for these disturbances. A key advantage of the significant change report is that only one disturbance per channel can be triggered each second. If multiple disturbances occur during a second, the worst one is recorded. This limits the size of the report, making it much easier to analyze, while still giving single-cycle response. If event change detailed disturbance information on a cycle basis is required, use the event change report. Event change gives much more detail, but is more complicated to examine. The timestamp of a significant change event can be used to find the same disturbance in the event change report for further analysis. For more detail waveform capture can be used (if enabled). If the disturbance triggers waveform capture, the raw waveforms of each voltage and current channel can be displayed. Again, the significant change timestamp is used to find the waveform in the list of captured waveforms. Event Change The event change report provides detailed cycle-level information about each voltage disturbance. This is the most detailed report available, excluding waveform capture. An event is triggered when the voltage moves past any of a series of trip points. Maximum and minimum voltages and currents during the event, the event duration (in cycles), and the current before and after the event are all recorded. Trigger Logic Event change triggering involves three parameters. The first, the nominal voltage, sets a baseline voltage level. This is not the same nominal voltage selected by the abnormal voltage record type during the two-minute countdown. The event change nominal voltage is specified by the user, and is not picked by the Vision. The second parameter is the threshold, in volts. The threshold is added and subtracted to the nominal to form voltage trip points. These trip points are created all the way down to zero volts and up to the maximum power quality analyzer voltage by using multiples of the threshold voltage. For example, a nominal voltage of 120V and a threshold of 6V would create trip points at 102V, 108V, 114V, 126V, 132V, 138V, etc. The voltage region around the nominal voltage, but before any trip points (115V to 125V in the above example) is called the nominal band. If the voltage moves from the nominal band to cross a trip point, an event change is triggered. This event change continues until the voltage either returns back into the nominal band, or moves past another trip point. Each time the voltage moves past another trip point, the existing event change ends, and a new event change is triggered. The trip points can be visualized as a grid (every 6V in the above example) from 0V to 600V (the maximum Vision voltage), and any time the line voltage crosses a grid line, an event change is triggered. What is Recorded When an event change is triggered, the trigger time is recorded, with one cycle resolution. The RMS current, one cycle before the trigger, is recorded. The direction of the voltage change, or slope, is also recorded. This is displayed in ProVision as a minus for a sag and a plus for a swell. While the event is occurring, the Vision keeps track of the maximum and minimum current and voltage values. When the event ends, the maximum and minimum RMS voltage and currents are recorded, along with the duration (in cycles). One cycle later, the RMS currents are measured to record the currents after the event. All voltage and current measurements are recorded for every channel, regardless of which channel triggered the event. If a sag occurs on three-phases simultaneously, three events will be triggered at the same time. These events are recorded separately, even though they may have the same data in them. Typical Settings and Suggested Uses The nominal voltage should be set as close as possible to the actual nominal line voltage. If a circuit normally runs at about 117V, use 117V as the nominal, not 120V. Event change is not for steady-state line voltage regulation problems (like the abnormal voltage report), but for quick sags and swells. The threshold should be set small enough to catch problem events, but large enough to avoid filling up memory with unimportant data. A good start is 5% of the nominal. The nominal and threshold can be set separately for each channel. To disable event change on a channel, set its threshold to something exceptionally large, like 500V. The minimum event time is not as critical. Ideally, this is set to a value larger than the slowest anticipated sag time. For example, if no sags (such as from motor starts, etc.) will take longer than 6 cycles for the voltage to drop to the sag value, the best minimum event time is 7 cycles. This will prevent multiple event changes from the same voltage sag. Otherwise, as the voltage drops lower and lower, past voltage trip points, events will continue to be triggered. Ideally, only one event is triggered for a single sag or swell. A typical value is 10 cycles. This is longer than most sags take to reach the final sag voltage. Event change provides cycle-level detail on sags and swells. A sag which shows up only as a single point on the interval graph can be analyzed in the event change report. Usually, event change is not the first report to analyze in a Vision monitoring, due to its complexity. Check the voltage interval graph for minimum or maximum voltages out of tolerance, or the significant change report for voltage fluctuations. If a disturbance needs further study, use the timestamp to find the fluctuation in the event change report. Here detailed information, such as cycle duration, pre- and post-event RMS currents, etc. is available. The most useful values are the duration and maximum and minimum voltages. This information shows how long the event lasted, and how low or high the voltage went. The cycle timestamp can be useful to determine how far apart several events were if they occurred within the same second. The timestamp is also used to correlate an event change with other reports, such as significant change and waveform capture. The pre and post RMS current cycles can be used to determine whether the load being monitored caused a sag. Consider a sag that triggers an event change. If the current one cycle before the event is low, but the maximum current during the event is high, and the current one cycle after is high (or at least higher than the pre-trigger current), the monitored load probably caused the event. In-rush current from a motor start will cause this type of pattern: the high in-rush current pulls the voltage down, triggering an event. When the in-rush current peak is over, the voltage goes back up, ending the event. The final current is lower than the inrush current, but higher than the current before the event. Another possibility is a voltage sag where the current during the event is lower than the pre-trigger current (or about the same), and the post-trigger current is about the same. Here, the monitored load probably did not cause the event. Some other load pulled the voltage down, and the monitored load current dropped proportionately with the lowered voltage. When the voltage came back up, then the current rose to its normal level also. ProVision group closely occurring event change records into super-events. A super-event is started when an event starts on any channel. The super-event lasts until there are no running events on all channels for at least an entire second. A complicated voltage disturbance may trigger several closely spaced or back-to-back event changes, but they will be grouped into a single super-event for easier analysis. Event change is recorded separately for each voltage channel. If event change memory is filled, event change monitoring stops. All voltage channels use the same event change memory . The amount of memory used for event change is different for various PMI power analyzers, but the Vision power quality analyzers can record over one thousand records. Power Outage The power outage report lists the date and time of all outages during the recording session. An outage is defined by the Vision to be a voltage sag below 80V, lasting for at least one-third of a second. Only channel 1 voltage is used to trigger an outage. The beginning and end of the outage are time-stamped. In the report, the duration is also given, along with the total number of outages and the total outage time. The Vision has battery ride-through capability, so it will continue to record histograms, interval graphs, etc. during an outage. A power outage often triggers waveform capture, which may help reveal the cause of the outage. Flicker The flicker record type is designed to show voltage variations that cause lights to flicker. The Vision defaults to the threshold of irritation curve from IEEE Standard 141. This curve is designed to show only voltage flicker that is perceived as irritating. When this occurs, a flicker event is recorded with the flicker time and magnitude. Trigger Logic A flicker curve is specified by a list of allowable voltage thresholds, and a limit on their quantity in certain time spans. The default parameters conform to IEEE Standard 141 and can be adjusted in ProVision. For more information on flicker parameters, see the ProVision documentation. Flicker is computed once per second, based on the previous second’s one cycle maximum, minimum, and one-second average RMS voltage levels. The thresholds are given as a percentage. If the maximum, minimum, or average differs from each other by more than the percentage for a certain time period, then a flicker event counter is incremented. If the counter value exceeds the limit for a certain time period, a flicker record is triggered. What is Recorded When a flicker record is created, the date and time are recorded, along with the number of voltage events that exceeded the tolerance. The time span over which the flicker occurred is also recorded. Each channel is reported separately. Typical Settings and Suggested Uses The flicker report is designed to show whether utility customers will perceive voltage variations as flickering lights. The default curve is programmed to generate flicker events when a person would become irritated by the level of flicker. The IEEE also has a curve that shows when a person would just perceive flickering lights, but not become irritated. The validity of these curves depends on individual circumstances such as lighting (the curves assume 120V incandescent) and customer sensitivity. The flicker report is used both to confirm a customer complaint about flickering lights, and to measure progress in mitigating a problem. If no flicker events were recorded, then no voltage variations occurred which exceeded the allowed limits, and the problem may have been solved. Since flickering light perception is so subjective, merely showing a customer a flicker report that shows no flicker according to a standard curve may lessen the complaint by showing that the voltage variations are within standard limits. If flicker memory is filled, flicker monitoring stops. The amount of memory used for flicker is different for various PMI power analyzers, but every Vision can record over one thousand records. Abnormal Voltage The abnormal voltage record type shows if the average line voltage moved past a low or high threshold from the nominal voltage. When the trigger occurs, the event is time stamped to the nearest second. Trigger Logic The triggering logic uses a low and high threshold, a nominal voltage, and a trigger duration. The thresholds are added and subtracted to the nominal voltage to find triggering points. If the voltage crosses a triggering point for longer than the trigger duration, an abnormal voltage event occurs. The Vision is initialized with a list of potential nominal voltages (such as 120V, 240V, etc.), with low and high voltage thresholds for each. The actual nominal is picked by the Vision during the two-minute countdown. The average voltage during the countdown is compared to each of the nominal voltages; the closest one becomes the nominal voltage for the entire monitoring session. There are five standard nominal voltages in the software setup (120V, 208V, 240V, 277V, and 480V), and two custom nominal voltages. The custom nominal voltages can be set to any voltage. It is also possible to enable and disable the standard and custom nominal voltages. For example, if you want to force the Vision to use 230V as the nominal, the standard nominal voltages should be disabled, and both custom nominal voltages set to 230V. If the standard nominal voltages were not disabled, there would be a chance for the Vision to pick 240V during the two-minute countdown, if the line voltage happened to be running closer to 240V than 230V at that time. The nominal voltage is chosen by the Vision separately for each voltage channel. There are separate high and low thresholds for each of the seven nominal voltages. The applicable thresholds are used once a nominal voltage is selected by the Vision after the two-minute countdown. Voltage channels are handled separately; there is a complete set of nominal voltages and thresholds for each. The Vision will automatically select the correct nominal and threshold voltages for each channel. The last abnormal voltage parameter is a trigger duration, in seconds. This specifies how many seconds in a row the voltage must exceed the threshold voltage before the abnormal voltage record is triggered. At the end of each second during the recording session, the Vision compares the one-second average voltage with the nominal and the low and high thresholds. Each threshold actually creates two trip points, one above the nominal and one below. For example, consider a setup where the nominal is 120V, the low threshold is 6V, and the high 12V. The low trip points become 120±6, or 114V and 126V. The high trip points are 120±12, or 108V and 132V. If the one-second average voltage rises above 126V or falls below 114V for longer than the trigger duration, the low abnormal voltage trigger occurs. The use of one-second average voltages eliminates false triggering due to momentary sags and swells. Abnormal voltage is designed to trigger for average-line voltage exceptions, not sub-second events. What is Recorded When abnormal voltage is triggered, the date and time, along with the channel and triggering voltage are recorded. There is a separate listing for each voltage channel, as well as low and high thresholds. Only the first trigger for each threshold is recorded. Typical Settings and Suggested Uses The abnormal voltage report is used to determine whether the voltage drifted outside the thresholds during the recording session. Typically, the abnormal voltage report is used to get a quick read of whether there was any line voltage drift; if so, other record types such as the interval graph and significant change are used for more information. The default threshold settings are at 5% and 10% of the nominal voltage (for example, 6V and 12V for the 120V nominal). The high threshold must be larger than the low threshold. The two custom nominal voltages are preset at 106V and 230V, but should be changed if a different nominal voltage is in use. The default trigger duration is five seconds, and can be set as small as one second, or as large as 255 seconds. Loose Neutral The loose neutral report shows whether the typical symptoms of a loose neutral have occurred. This report is intended for single-phase services, such as those measured by the Vision with only two channels in use, with voltage channels 1 and 2 connected from line to neutral. The primary symptom of a loose neutral condition is for one voltage leg to rise in voltage, and the other to fall, with the sum of the two voltages remaining close to twice the nominal voltage. For example, if the voltages start at 119V and 121V, then move to 105V and 135V, a loose neutral is a likely cause: one leg went up, one went down, and the sum is close to twice the nominal (240V). This happens whenever the load is not balanced, and the neutral is disconnected. If this condition is met for long enough, the loose neutral report is triggered. Trigger Logic The loose neutral logic uses three parameters: duration, range, and difference. These parameters are used to judge whether one voltage leg has risen, and one fallen, while the sum remained the same. The difference is a voltage that specifies the minimum difference between the two legs. For example, with a loose neutral where the difference is 16V; there must be at least a 16V separation between the two legs. The range is a voltage that specifies how close the sum of the two voltages must be to twice the nominal voltage. For example, a range of 12V means that the sum of the two legs must be within 12V of twice the nominal voltage. Both the range and the difference conditions must be met for at least the number of seconds specified by the duration. If the duration is set to five seconds, then the difference and range conditions must be met for five consecutive seconds before a loose neutral is declared. One-second average voltages are used. The nominal voltage is the nominal determined during the two-minute countdown by the abnormal voltage record type, and is typically 120V in a single-phase hookup. As an example, assume the difference parameter is 16V, and the range 12V, with 5second duration. The two line voltages are 119 and 121V. Then one leg moves to 128V, and the other to 110V.The difference between the two legs is 18V, which meets the difference threshold. The sum of the two voltages is 238V, which is within the required 12V (specified by the range value) of twice the nominal (240V). If these voltages persist for 5 seconds in a row, then a loose neutral record will be triggered. If one voltage leg changes due to heavy loading, the range parameter keeps the loose neutral from false triggering. For example, if the voltages start at 119V and 121V, then a heavy load to channel 1 causes it to drop to 105V, with the other leg still at 121V, the difference condition is met (121 ×105 > 12), but the range condition is not met: 105+121 = 226, and 226V is not within 12V of the 240V nominal. What is Recorded The date and time of the loose neutral triggering is recorded, along with the voltage on the two channels. Only the first occurrence of a loose neutral is recorded; if the conditions are met again, nothing further happens. The loose neutral report shows whether the neutral may have a bad connection, not the exact times the connection was made and broken. Typical Settings and Suggested Uses The loose neutral report can show the symptoms of an actual loose neutral connection. It is worth investigating if the report is triggered. However, it is possible for the loose neutral logic to be fooled. If both legs are equally loaded, then the two voltages will remain the same even if the neutral is removed. This will prevent the loose neutral trigger from firing. It is also possible for one leg to rise and one to fall due to grossly different loading, and not from an actual loose connection. Thus, it is possible for a loose neutral to trigger falsely, when there is no loose connection. Waveform Capture Waveform capture provides the most detailed report possible: the raw voltage and current waveforms themselves are recorded. With clues provided by the waveform shapes, it is sometimes possible to determine the cause of a voltage disturbance. Events such as capacitors opening and closing, reclosers operating, and lightning strikes can sometimes produce distinctive shapes. The voltage waveforms also reveal the exact duration and magnitude of an event, and how much was coupled across phases. Waveform capture is also useful during steady-state conditions. The current wave shapes can show harmonic currents from nonlinear loads, and the voltage wave shapes show the distortion due to harmonic currents and transformer loading. It takes a large amount of memory to store raw waveforms . The memory size of a single 3-cycle waveform capture record is larger than the size of four hours of interval graph data (at one-minute intervals). Trigger Logic Waveform capture is triggered when the change in voltage or current exceeds one of the user settable thresholds. This threshold can be set as a percentage change in voltage or current, or a change in terms of absolute volts. At the end of each 60Hz cycle, the RMS voltage for that cycle is compared with the RMS voltage of the previous cycle. If the percent change in RMS value is greater than the threshold, waveform capture is triggered. Any voltage channel can trigger waveform capture. The voltage must be at least 5V to trigger. If a trigger occurs, the waveform data is recorded. The trigger test is repeated every cycle, so if the RMS voltage keeps changing, waveform capture will continue to be triggered, until the voltage stabilizes. What is Recorded When a trigger occurs, the waveform data for the triggering cycle is recorded, along with the date and time (to the nearest cycle). The waveform data for the previous cycle is also recorded, to provide a pre-trigger waveform. The user can also customize how many pre and post waveform cycles are recorded. Whenever a waveform is triggered, all voltage and current wave shapes are recorded, regardless of which channel caused the trigger. The waveforms of the next cycle are also recorded, to provide a post trigger waveform. This creates a three-cycle waveform capture record. Many users choose to record two cycles prior to the triggering cycle and six cycles after the triggering cycle, monitoring nine cycles total (including the triggering cycle). This provides a good depiction of what happened just before the triggering cycle and what happened immediately after. If the trigger condition is met again on the next cycle, then an additional cycle of waveforms is added. In general, the waveform capture record continues until waveform capture one cycle after the triggering stops. If the voltage is fluctuating wildly, the entire waveform capture memory could be filled by a very long waveform capture record. If the waveform capture memory is full before the end of the event and the unit is in wrap-around mode, the Vision automatically erases cycles of the earliest record to make room for the new data. If the unit is not in wrap-around mode, it will not record any waveforms for events occurring after the waveform capture memory has been filled. The waveform data is presented as a graph and a report. The report is usually used only if the data will be exported to a spreadsheet. Typical Settings and Suggested Uses The default setting for triggering a voltage waveform capture is 3%. With this threshold, the RMS voltage has to change by at least 3% in a single cycle. If the threshold is too tight, waveform capture will trigger so often that useless events overwrite the important waveforms. You may also choose to trigger a waveform capture using a voltage value, rather than a percentage. The default trigger setting for the voltage is 5 volts. In order to use this, simply set the percentage setting for waveform capture higher than the voltage setting. For example, if you would like the trigger threshold to be 5 volts rather than 3%, simply set the percentage trigger threshold to a value such as 100%, and the waveform capture will then be triggered by the threshold of 5 volts, as that is the tighter constraint. The default setting for triggering a current waveform is 40%. If you wish to capture more or less current waveforms, simply set this value higher or lower. If you do not wish to capture any waveforms based on variations in current, simply set this percentage to a very high level, so that it is unlikely that a waveform will ever be triggered by a current variation (the highest allowed trigger threshold is 900%). A waveform capture report consisting of just one very long record is an indication that the setting is too small. A report where all the waveform records occurred during the last few minutes of the recording session is another indicator of too small a threshold. In both these cases, the trigger was being met too often. Of course, if no waveform records are present, either the threshold was too large, or the voltage quality was too good. The optimal setting varies from system to system. The exact nature of a voltage disturbance can be seen in the waveform capture report. The peak voltage, length of the sag or swell, and the coupling from phase to phase are easily seen in the graph. Sometimes there are clues regarding the cause of a voltage disturbance. A voltage sag that starts in the middle of a cycle but ends at a zero crossing can be produced by a gas arrestor. The arc continues until the voltage reaches zero, then the arc is extinguished. A recloser operation usually begins and ends at random points in the cycle. A voltage sag that is preceded by an increase in current, but followed by a decrease in current, is usually caused by the monitored load. If the current went down during the sag, and was steady before and after, the sag was probably not caused by the monitored load. Each triggered event is often captured by the significant change and event change reports. The minimum or maximum voltage is usually in the interval graph as well. These reports can be used to place the waveform capture record into the proper overall context. Use the timestamps for each record type to correlate the different reports. A manual trigger captures the voltage and current waveforms during steady state conditions (unless the user happened to press the button at the exact moment of a disturbance). Transformer saturation often shows in a flattened voltage wave shape. If the positive voltage half-cycle is a different shape than the negative half-cycle, even-order voltage harmonics are present. Often the current waveforms will not be sinusoidal. The less they look like a sine wave, the higher the level of current harmonics. Frequently, the neutral current looks much less sinusoidal than the line currents, because some harmonics do not cancel out in a three-phase system, even with a balanced load. The more the current waveform is shifted from the voltage waveform, the worse the power factor. Transient Capture (VisionPro) In addition to measuring and monitoring many types of instantaneous and momentary voltage and current disturbances, the VisionPro can capture a class of events shorter in duration than instantaneous sags and swells called transients. These disturbances are classified as impulsive transients, usually attributed to lightning and load switching, and oscillatory transients usually caused by capacitor bank switching. Impulse transients occur as high peak magnitude, fast rise time, uni-polar (either positive or negative) disturbances. Since they are non-power frequency related events they can occur at any point in the fundamental power voltage waveform, and can add to or subtract from the voltage peak magnitude. Oscillatory transients occur as a result of capacitor switching for power factor correction, one of the most common switching events on utility systems. When switched, these capacitors react with the inductance of the power system to create a resonant circuit which rings at the natural frequency of the L-R-C circuit. This event produces a voltage transient with a theoretical peak magnitude between 1.0 and 2.0 per unit depending on the damping, or resistive component, of the system. The frequency of the ringing waveform varies with the VAR rating of the capacitor, and usually falls between 300 and 900 Hz. The VisionPro uses a voltage channel sampling rate of 1MHz (16,666 samples/cycle) to detect and measure voltage transients up to ±5kV peak magnitude. Current channels are sampled at 250kHz or 4,166 samples/cycle. In order to detect and record transients, the VisionPro measures the peak (or instantaneous) voltage. Whenever the absolute instantaneous voltage exceeds the limit selected by the user during initialization, a transient will be detected and recorded. Additional Resource s Understanding power quality analyzer Data This document, which describes the records stored by PMI power analyzers, is available in PDF format. This and other helpful documents may be found on the ProVision installation CD. This document can also be found on the website at http://www.powermonitors.com/support/understanding.pdf . Calibration An extensive Calibration Report is included with each Vision unit. This report certifies the accuracy of your Vision to factory specifications. Parameters that are measured during the calibration include RMS voltage, RMS current, real power, apparent power, reactive power, phase angle, power factor, frequency, PST flicker, power outage detection, battery ride-through, and more. Each Vision is carefully calibrated prior to shipment. The calibration is valid for one year after the calibration date. To have your Vision re-calibrated, please contact PMI’s technical support department for a return authorization number and shipping instructions. Technical Support Help is always available if one needs additional assistance. The technical support at PMI is widely considered to be the best in the industry. Use one of the following methods to obtain technical support: E-mail Support Send e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org . Web Support Submit a support request via the web at http://www.powermonitors.com . Telephone Support Contact us 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for live tech support by calling: (800) 296-4120 Faxes should be sent to: (540) 432-9430 Postal Mail Support All correspondence by post should be addressed to: Power Monitors, Inc. 800 North Main Street Mount Crawford, VA 22841 USA Appendix 1: Warranty Clause Power Monitors Inc. (PMI) warrants each new product manufactured and sold to be free from defects in material, workmanship, and construction, and that when used in accordance with this manual will perform to applicable specifications for a period of one year after shipment. If examination discloses that the product has been defective, then PMI’s obligation is limited to repair or replacement (at PMI’s option) of the defective unit or its components. PMI is not responsible for products that have been subject to misuse, alteration, accident, or for repairs not performed by PMI. The foregoing warranty constitutes PMI’s sole liability, and is in lieu of any other warranty of merchantability or fitness. PMI shall not be responsible for any incidental or consequential damages arising from any breach of warranty. Equipment Return If any PMI product requires repair or is defective, call PMI at (800) 2964120 before shipping the unit to PMI. If the problem cannot be resolved over the phone, PMI will issue a return authorization number. For prompt service, all shipments to PMI must include: The billing and shipping address for return of equipment The name and telephone number of whom to contact for further information A description of the problem or the work required A list of the enclosed items and serial numbers A return authorization number If possible, a copy of the original invoice Equipment returned to PMI must be shipped with freight charges prepaid. After repair, PMI will return equipment F.O.B. factory. If equipment is repaired under warranty obligation, freight charges (excluding airfreight or premium services) will be refunded or credited to the customer’s account. Return equipment to: Power Monitors Inc. 800 North Main Street Mount Crawford, VA 22841 USA Attention: Repair Department Appendix 2: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Firmware: How do I check the firmware version in the Vision using ProVision? How do I upgrade firmware? How do I use ProVision to upgrade the Vision power quality analyzer’s firmware? 1 ) To check the firmware version of your Vision, first connect to the device using ProVision. 2) Identify the power quality analyzer by clicking [power quality analyzer] and then selecting [Identify] . 3) After the identification is complete, click on [View] and the “View Identification Information” window will appear, stating the firmware version of your Vision™;. 4) Go to http://www.powermonitors.com . 5) Go to the technical support page and find the graph on the bottom of the page with current firmware. 6) Look at the latest firmware for the Vision stated on the site, and compare this with the firmware version of your Vision power analyzer. 7) If the latest firmware version listed on the site appears to be newer than the version on your Vision power quality analyzer, look under “Download Latest Firmware” on the site and select the link for ProVision. 8) Answer “Yes” to “Do you plan to use ProVision to update firmware?” 9) Click [Next] then [Finish] . 10) This will automatically install the package in ProVision. 11) ProVision can detect if firmware is needed and for what device. 12) In ProVision, select [Options] then [Show Advanced Operations] . 13) Select the Vision in the devices tree, right-click on the device, and select “Upload firmware.” 14) A pop-up box should either say “Files containing new version not found” or “Firmware upgrade necessary.” 15) Follow the prompts if it says “Firmware upgrade necessary.” How do I initialize my Vision power analyzer using ProVision? 1) Connect to the device using ProVision. 2) Click on [power quality analyzer] or right-click on your Vision in the devices tree. 3) Select [Initialize], which should open up the “Basic Screen” window. 4) Set the desired intervals, channels, circuit types, etc. If necessary, select [Advanced] . For more information on using this, see the ProVision documentation. 5) Click [Finish]. 6) Answer “Yes” to “Would you like to initialize the power quality analyzer?” 7) When the power quality analyzer has finished initializing, select [Disconnect] and unplug your Vision. It is now ready to begin monitoring. How do I check for and how do I upgrade to the most current version of ProVision? 1) See “Software Installation” in the ProVision manual. How do I export data files into Microsoft Excel or Word? ) Note: You cannot export data into Excel if data exceeds 65,000 lines (try using Word in this case); you may however use the most recent version of Excel (version 2007) to export to it using more than 65,000 lines. 1) Open the data file. 2) Right-click the file and select [Export to Word] or [Export to Excel] . How do I save my favorite Vision initialization settings for later use? 1) In ProVision, go to the “power analyzer Settings” folder in the devices tree. 2) Right-click on the folder and click [Create Template Settings] . 3) Select [USB Vision] from the “power quality analyzer Type” drop-down menu and click [OK] . 4) Select the desired settings and select [OK] . 5) Click [Finish] when done. 6) Name the settings. (e.g. “Default Vision Settings) 7) Select [OK] . 8) These new settings should now show up in the “power analyzer Settings” folder. 9) Drag and drop on the power quality analyzer you wish to initialize with the new settings in the device tree. 10) Answer “Yes” to “Would you like to initialize with these settings?” How should I interpret the data recorded by my Vision? 1) See “Understanding Scanner Records” on the website at http://www.powermonitors.com/support/understanding.pdf , or on the CD included with your Vision. If that does not help, call 1-800-296-4120. How do I import older WinScan data files for use with ProVision? 1) In ProVision, select [File] then [Import] . 2) Locate and select the folder containing your WinScan data files. 3) Answer “Yes” to “Should the folder be added recursively?” 4) The WinScan data files should now be displayed in the explorer tree in the under the “Imported Files” folder. How do I change the scaling (upper or lower bounds) on a graph? 1) While looking at a graph, select [Tools] and then [Upper/Lower Bounds] . 2) In the “Upper/Lower Bounds” window, select “Manual Scaling.” 3) You can now change the upper and lower bounds to values of your choice. If you would like to set the bounds to all plots, simply click [Set all scales to this scale] after typing in your desired bounds. My Vision will not communicate. What should I do? 1) Go to the technical support page on www.powermonitors.com and download the “Communications Troubleshooting” document. If you still need help, call 1-800-296-4120. Will I need to buy a site license for ProVision to install it on multiple computers? 1) No. ProVision only works with PMI equipment, so there is no charge for PMI customers in order to make the equipment and software easier to use. How can I get notified of updated versions of ProVision as they are released? 1) You can register to get email updates from PMI or you can check our website every 4-6 months to see what the latest version is. Can I run both ProVision and WinScan at the same time in my computer? 1) Both programs can be run at the same time for data analysis, however, only one program can be used for communicating with a power analyzer at a time. Also, the speed at which both programs operate may be affected when running them simultaneously. Appendix 3 : Troubleshooting There are several things that could cause communication or download problems with PMI equipment. Listed below are PC and software settings to check and procedures to try: Check all cable connections to see if tight and free of any corrosion or debris. Check cable status for physical defects, such as cuts or abrasions and missing connector pins. If you are using a laptop PC make sure that any energy-saving features on the Windows operating system are turned off. Sometimes the PC will shut down communications in an attempt to save the battery. If you are using a Bluetooth ® card or adapter, make sure that you have the latest drivers installed from the manufacturer’s website. Check to insure that the local port setting in ProVision is set for the Bluetooth ® adapter port setting on the PC. Make sure that the baud rate setting in the adapter software is set to the correct rate. After checking all of the appropriate items above start fresh on the download process. Disconnect the power quality analyzer and allow it to power down. Close the ProVision program. Try the operation again. If you still have communications or download problems after trying all of the above, then there is possibly a hardware problem in the power quality analyzer. Find the “Communications Troubleshooting” document at http://www.powermonitors.com and try some of the suggestions listed. Call Technical Support at 1-800-296-4120. If there appears to be a hardware problem, call PMI at 1800-296-4120 to arrange for a return authorization to send your unit to the repair department. Appendix 4: Regulatory Information U.S. FCC Part 15 and Industry Canada RSS 210 Statements This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. The FCC and Industry Canada (IC) ID numbers applicable to the embedded Vision Bluetooth Module are as follows: FCC ID: RO9VIS0309 IC: 4806A-VIS0309 FCC Warning Changes or modifications to this product not expressly approved by Power Monitors Inc. could void the user’s authority to operate this equipment. This product must be installed to provide a separation distance of at least 20 cm from all persons and must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.